Bullying is universal problem from the playground, to the classroom, to the board room.
You will find here the resources to help you stop bullying – whether you’re the perpetrator, the target, a bystander, a collaborator, or an upstander – these are designed to help you understand what’s happening and give you tools to make it stop.
Start with my special report: What YOU Can DO About Bullying
It is my goal you find something helpful here. Need something else? Contact us and let’s talk about what that might be.
With Respect’s Resources:
K2K: Kid 2 Kid. Kids learning how to be the trainers for their peers to eliminate bullying and improve school culture. This is a community based program.
Intervention & Prevention. They are different.
- More than one out of every five (20.8%) students report being bullied (National Center for Educational Statistics, 2016).
- The federal government began collecting data on school bullying in 2005, when the prevalence of bullying was around 28 percent (U.S. Department of Education, 2015).
- Rates of bullying vary across studies (from 9% to 98%). A meta-analysis of 80 studies analyzing bullying involvement rates (for both bullying others and being bullied) for 12-18 year old students reported a mean prevalence rate of 35% for traditional bullying involvement and 15% for cyberbullying involvement (Modecki, Minchin, Harbaugh, Guerra, & Runions, 2014).
- 33% of students who reported being bullied at school indicated that they were bullied at least once or twice a month during the school year (National Center for Educational Statistics, 2016).
- Of those students who reported being bullied, 13% were made fun of, called names, or insulted; 12% were the subject of rumors; 5% were pushed, shoved, tripped, or spit on; and 5% were excluded from activities on purpose (National Center for Educational Statistics, 2016).
- A slightly higher portion of female than of male students report being bullied at school (23% vs. 19%). In contrast, a higher percentage of male than of female students report being physically bullied (6% vs. 4%) and threatened with harm (5% vs. 3%; (National Center for Educational Statistics, 2016).
- Bullied students reported that bullying occurred in the following places: the hallway or stairwell at school (42%), inside the classroom (34%), in the cafeteria (22%), outside on school grounds (19%), on the school bus (10%), and in the bathroom or locker room (9%) (National Center for Educational Statistics, 2016).
- 43% of bullied students report notifying an adult at school about the incident. Students who report higher rates of bullying victimization are more likely to report the bullying (National Center for Educational Statistics, 2016).
- More than half of bullying situations (57%) stop when a peer intervenes on behalf of the student being bullied (Hawkins, Pepler, & Craig, 2001).
- School-based bullying prevention programs decrease bullying by up to 25% (McCallion & Feder, 2013).
- The reasons for being bullied reported most often by students include physical appearance, race/ethnicity, gender, disability, religion, sexual orientation (National
Research & References:
- Center for Disease Control, National Center for Injury Prevention and Control (2015). Understanding bullying. Retrieved from https://www.cdc.gov/violenceprevention/pdf/bullying_factsheet.pdf
- Davis, S., & Nixon, C. (2010). The youth voice research project: Victimization and strategies. Retrieved from: http://njbullying.org/documents/YVPMarch2010.pdf
- Day, J. K., & Snapp, S. D. (2016). Supportive, not punitive, practices reduce homophobic bullying and improve school connectedness. Psychology of Sexual Orientations and Gender Diversity, 3, 416-425. Retrieved from http://psycnet.apa.org.ezp3.lib.umn.edu/fulltext/2016-41520-001.pdf
- Duong, J., & Bradshaw, C. (2014). Associations between bullying and engaging in aggressive and suicidal behavior among sexual minority youth: The moderating role of connectedness. Journal of School Health, 84, 636-645. Retrieved from https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25154527
- Espelage, D. L., & Holt, M. K. (2013). Suicidal ideation and school bullying experiences after controlling for depression and delinquency. Journal of Adolescent Health, 53. Retrieved from http://www.ncdsv.org/images/JAH_Suicidal-ideation-and-school-bullying_7-2013.pdf
- Gini, G., & Espelage, D. D. (2014) Peer victimization, cyberbullying, and suicide risk in children and adolescents. JAMA Pediatrics, 312, 545-546. Retrieved from
- Gini, G., & Pozzoli, T. (2013). Bullied children and psychosomatic problems: A meta-analysis. Pediatrics. Retrieved from pediatrics.aappublications.org/content/early/2013/09/11/peds.2013-0614
- GLSEN. (2013). The 2013 National School Climate Survey. Retrieved from
- Hamm, M. P., Newton, A. S., & Chisholm, A. (2015). Prevalence and effect of cyberbullying on children and young people: A scoping review of social media students. JAMA Pediatrics, 169, 770-777. Retrieved from https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26098362
- Hatzenbuehler, M. L., & Keyes, K. M. (2012). Inclusive anti-bullying policies and reduced risk of suicide attempts in lesbian and gay youth. Journal of Adolescent Health, 53, 21-26. Retrieved from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3696185/?tool=pmcentrez
- Hatzenbuehler, M. L., & Keyes, K. M. (2013). Inclusive anti-bullying policies and reduced risk of suicide attempts in lesbian and gay youth. Journal of Adolescent Health, 53, S21-S26. Retrieved from https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23790196
- Hawkins, D. L., Pepler, D. J., & Craig, W. M. (2001). Naturalistic observations of peer interventions in bullying. Social Development, 10(4), 512-527. Retrieved from http://bullylab.com/Portals/0/Naturalistic%20ob…
- Kann, L., Kinchen, S., & Shanklin, S. (2014). United States 2013 results. High School Youth Risk Behavior Survey, Center for Disease Control. Retrieved from http://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/pdf/ss/ss6304.pdf
- McCallion, G., & Feder, J. (2013). Student bullying: Overview of research, federal initiatives, and legal issues. Congressional Research Service. Retrieved from http://www.fas.org/sgp/crs/misc/R43254.pdf
- Modecki, K. L., Minchin, J., Harbaugh, A. G., Guerra, N. G., & Runions, K. C. (2014). Bullying prevelance across contexts: A meta-analysis measuring cyber and traditional bullying. Journal of Adolescent Health, 55, 602-611. Retrieved from http://www.jahonline.org/article/S1054-139X(14)00254-7/abstract
- Morin, H. K., Bradshaw, C. P., & Berg, J. K. (2015). Examining the link between per victimization and adjustment problems in adolescents: The role of connectedness and parent engagement. Psychology of Violence, 5, 422-432. Retrieved from http://psycnet.apa.org/buy/2015-45377-003
- National Center for Educational Statistics. (2015). Student reports of bullying and cyberbullying: Results from the 2013 school crime supplement to the National Victimization Survey. US Department of Education. Retrieved from http://nces.ed.gov/pubsearch/pubsinfo.asp?pubid=2015056
- National Center for Education Statistics. (2016). Indicators of School Crime and Safety: 2015. U.S. Department of Education. Retrieved from https://nces.ed.gov/fastfacts/display.asp?id=719
- National Center for Education Statistics. (2016). Indicators of School Crime and Safety: 2016. U.S. Department of Education. Retrieved from https://nces.ed.gov/pubs2017/2017064.pdf
- Patchin, J. W., & Hinduja, S. (2016). Summary of our cyberbullying research (2004-2016). Cyberbullying Research Center. Retrieved from http://cyberbullying.org/summary-of-our-cyberbullying-research
- Perren, S., Ettekal, I., & Ladd, G. (2013). The impact of peer victimization on later maladjustment: Mediating and moderating effects of hostile and self-blaming attributions. Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 54, 46-55. Retrieved from https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3527635/
- Reed, K. P., Nugent, W., & Cooper, R. L. (2015). Testing a path model of relationships between gender, age, and bullying victimization and violent behavior, substance abuse, depression, suicidal ideation, and suicide attempts in adolescents. Children and Youth Services Review, 55, 125-137. Retrieved from http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0190740915001656
- Rivers, I., Poteat, V. P., Noret, N., & Ashurst, N. (2009). Observing bullying at school: The mental health implications of witness status. School Psychology Quarterly, 24, 211–223. Retrieved from https://eric.ed.gov/?id=EJ866091
- Rose, C. A., Monda-Amaya, L. E., & Espelage, D. L. (2011). Bullying perpetration and victimization in special education: A review of the literature. Remedial and Special Education, 32, 114-130. Retrieved from http://rse.sagepub.com/content/early/2010/02/18/0741932510361247.abstract
- Rose, C. A., & Espelage, D. L. (2012). Risk and protective factors associated with the bullying involvement of students with emotional and behavioral disorders. Behavioral Disorders, 37, 133–148. Retrieved from https://eric.ed.gov/?id=EJ989490
- Rose, C. A., Espelage, D. L., Monda-Amaya, L. E., Shogren, K. A., & Aragon, S. R. (2013). Bullying and middle school students with and without specific learning disabilities. Journal of Learning Disabilities, 3, 239-254. Retrieved from http://journals.sagepub.com/doi/abs/10.1177/0022219413496279
- Rose, C. A., & Gage, N. A. (2017). Exploring the involvement of bullying among students with disabilities over time. Exceptional Children, 83, 298-314. Retrieved from http://journals.sagepub.com/doi/abs/10.1177/0014402916667587
- Rose, C. A., & Monda-Amaya, L. E. (2012). Bullying and victimization among students with disabilities: Effective strategies for classroom teachers. Intervention in School and Clinic, 48, 99-107. Retrieved from http://journals.sagepub.com.ezp3.lib.umn.edu/doi/abs/10.1177/1053451211430119
- Rosenthal, L., Earnshaw, V. A., Carroll-Scott, A., Henderson, K. E., Peters, S. M., McCaslin, C., & Ickovics, J. R. (2013). Weight- and race-based bullying: Health associations among urban adolescents. Journal of Health Psychology. Retrieved from http://www.yaleruddcenter.org/resources/upload/docs/what/communities/WeightRaceBullying_Phys….
- Russell, S. T., Sinclair, K., Poteat, P., & Koenig, B. (2012). Adolescent health and harassment based on discriminatory bias. American Journal of Public Health, 102(3), 493-495. Retrieved from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22390513
- Saylor, C.F. & Leach, J.B. (2009) Perceived bullying and social support students accessing special inclusion programming. Journal of Developmental and Physical Disabilities. 21, 69-80.
- Shelley, D., & Craig, W. M. (2010). Attributions and coping styles in reducing victimization. Canadian Journal of School Psychology, 25, 84-100. http://cjs.sagepub.com/content/25/1/84
- Thornberg, T., Tenenbaum, L., Varjas, K., Meyers, J., Jungert, T., & Vanegas, G. (2012). Bystander motivation in bullying incidents: To intervene or not to intervene? Western Journal of Emergency Medicine, 8(3), 247-252. Retrieved from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3415829/
- U.S. Department of Education, (2015). New data show a decline in school-based bullying. Retrieved from https://www.ed.gov/news/press-releases/new-data-show-decline-school-based-bullying
- Wright, T., & Smith, N. (2013). Bullying of LGBT youth and school climate for LGBT educators. GEMS (Gender, Education, Music, & Society, 6(1). Retrieved from http://library.queensu.ca/ojs/index.php/gems/article/view/5010
- Youth Risk Behavior Survey. (2015). Middle school YRBS. Centers for Disease Control. Retrieved from https://nccd.cdc.gov/youthonline/App/Default.aspx
- Youth Risk Behavior Survey. (2015). Trends in the prevalence of behaviors that contribute to violence. Centers for Disease Control. Retrieved from