Anti Bullying Resources

+Youth Bullying Statistics

-More than one out of every five (20.8%) students report being bullied (National Center for Educational Statistics, 2016).

-The federal government began collecting data on school bullying in 2005, when the prevalence of bullying was around 28 percent (U.S. Department of Education, 2015).

-Rates of bullying vary across studies (from 9% to 98%). A meta-analysis of 80 studies analyzing bullying involvement rates (for both bullying others and being bullied) for 12-18 year old students reported a mean prevalence rate of 35% for traditional bullying involvement and 15% for cyberbullying involvement (Modecki, Minchin, Harbaugh, Guerra, & Runions, 2014).

-33% of students who reported being bullied at school indicated that they were bullied at least once or twice a month during the school year (National Center for Educational Statistics, 2016).

-Of those students who reported being bullied, 13% were made fun of, called names, or insulted; 12% were the subject of rumors; 5% were pushed, shoved, tripped, or spit on; and 5% were excluded from activities on purpose (National Center for Educational Statistics, 2016).

-A slightly higher portion of female than of male students report being bullied at school (23% vs. 19%). In contrast, a higher percentage of male than of female students report being physically bullied (6% vs. 4%) and threatened with harm (5% vs. 3%; (National Center for Educational Statistics, 2016).

-Bullied students reported that bullying occurred in the following places: the hallway or stairwell at school (42%), inside the classroom (34%), in the cafeteria (22%), outside on school grounds (19%), on the school bus (10%), and in the bathroom or locker room (9%) (National Center for Educational Statistics, 2016).

-43% of bullied students report notifying an adult at school about the incident. Students who report higher rates of bullying victimization are more likely to report the bullying (National Center for Educational Statistics, 2016).

-More than half of bullying situations (57%) stop when a peer intervenes on behalf of the student being bullied (Hawkins, Pepler, & Craig, 2001).

-School-based bullying prevention programs decrease bullying by up to 25% (McCallion & Feder, 2013).

-The reasons for being bullied reported most often by students include physical appearance, race/ethnicity, gender, disability, religion, sexual orientation, and nationality.

+Research & Reference-Youth

-Center for Disease Control, National Center for Injury Prevention and Control (2015). Understanding bullying. Retrieved from

-Davis, S., & Nixon, C. (2010). The youth voice research project: Victimization and strategies. Retrieved from:

-Day, J. K., & Snapp, S. D. (2016). Supportive, not punitive, practices reduce homophobic bullying and improve school connectedness. Psychology of Sexual Orientations and Gender Diversity, 3, 416-425. Retrieved from

-Duong, J., & Bradshaw, C. (2014). Associations between bullying and engaging in aggressive and suicidal behavior among sexual minority youth: The moderating role of connectedness. Journal of School Health, 84, 636-645. Retrieved from

-Espelage, D. L., & Holt, M. K. (2013). Suicidal ideation and school bullying experiences after controlling for depression and delinquency. Journal of Adolescent Health, 53. Retrieved from

-Gini, G., & Espelage, D. D. (2014) Peer victimization, cyberbullying, and suicide risk in children and adolescents. JAMA Pediatrics, 312, 545-546. Retrieved from

-Gini, G., & Pozzoli, T. (2013). Bullied children and psychosomatic problems: A meta-analysis. Pediatrics. Retrieved from

-GLSEN. (2013). The 2013 National School Climate Survey. Retrieved from…

-Hamm, M. P., Newton, A. S., & Chisholm, A. (2015). Prevalence and effect of cyberbullying on children and young people: A scoping review of social media students. JAMA Pediatrics, 169, 770-777. Retrieved from

-Hatzenbuehler, M. L., & Keyes, K. M. (2012). Inclusive anti-bullying policies and reduced risk of suicide attempts in lesbian and gay youth. Journal of Adolescent Health, 53, 21-26. Retrieved from

-Hatzenbuehler, M. L., & Keyes, K. M. (2013). Inclusive anti-bullying policies and reduced risk of suicide attempts in lesbian and gay youth. Journal of Adolescent Health, 53, S21-S26. Retrieved from

-Hawkins, D. L., Pepler, D. J., & Craig, W. M. (2001). Naturalistic observations of peer interventions in bullying. Social Development, 10(4), 512-527. Retrieved from…

-Kann, L., Kinchen, S., & Shanklin, S. (2014). United States 2013 results. High School Youth Risk Behavior Survey, Center for Disease Control. Retrieved from

-McCallion, G., & Feder, J. (2013). Student bullying: Overview of research, federal initiatives, and legal issues. Congressional Research Service. Retrieved from

-Modecki, K. L., Minchin, J., Harbaugh, A. G., Guerra, N. G., & Runions, K. C. (2014). Bullying prevelance across contexts: A meta-analysis measuring cyber and traditional bullying. Journal of Adolescent Health, 55, 602-611. Retrieved from

-Morin, H. K., Bradshaw, C. P., & Berg, J. K. (2015). Examining the link between per victimization and adjustment problems in adolescents: The role of connectedness and parent engagement. Psychology of Violence, 5, 422-432. Retrieved from

-National Center for Educational Statistics. (2015). Student reports of bullying and cyberbullying: Results from the 2013 school crime supplement to the National Victimization Survey. US Department of Education. Retrieved from

-National Center for Education Statistics. (2016). Indicators of School Crime and Safety: 2015. U.S. Department of Education. Retrieved from

-National Center for Education Statistics. (2016). Indicators of School Crime and Safety: 2016. U.S. Department of Education. Retrieved from

-Patchin, J. W., & Hinduja, S. (2016). Summary of our cyberbullying research (2004-2016). Cyberbullying Research Center. Retrieved from

-Perren, S., Ettekal, I., & Ladd, G. (2013). The impact of peer victimization on later maladjustment: Mediating and moderating effects of hostile and self-blaming attributions. Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 54, 46-55. Retrieved from

-Reed, K. P., Nugent, W., & Cooper, R. L. (2015). Testing a path model of relationships between gender, age, and bullying victimization and violent behavior, substance abuse, depression, suicidal ideation, and suicide attempts in adolescents. Children and Youth Services Review, 55, 125-137. Retrieved from

-Rivers, I., Poteat, V. P., Noret, N., & Ashurst, N. (2009). Observing bullying at school: The mental health implications of witness status. School Psychology Quarterly, 24, 211–223. Retrieved from

-Rose, C. A., Monda-Amaya, L. E., & Espelage, D. L. (2011). Bullying perpetration and victimization in special education: A review of the literature. Remedial and Special Education, 32, 114-130. Retrieved from

-Rose, C. A., & Espelage, D. L. (2012). Risk and protective factors associated with the bullying involvement of students with emotional and behavioral disorders. Behavioral Disorders, 37, 133–148. Retrieved from

-Rose, C. A., Espelage, D. L., Monda-Amaya, L. E., Shogren, K. A., & Aragon, S. R.   (2013). Bullying and middle school students with and without specific learning         disabilities. Journal of Learning Disabilities, 3, 239-254. Retrieved from

-Rose, C. A., & Gage, N. A. (2017). Exploring the involvement of bullying among students with disabilities over time. Exceptional Children, 83, 298-314. Retrieved from

-Rose, C. A., & Monda-Amaya, L. E. (2012). Bullying and victimization among students with disabilities: Effective strategies for classroom teachers. Intervention in School and Clinic, 48, 99-107. Retrieved from

-Rosenthal, L., Earnshaw, V. A., Carroll-Scott, A., Henderson, K. E., Peters, S. M., McCaslin, C., & Ickovics, J. R. (2013). Weight- and race-based bullying: Health associations among urban adolescents. Journal of Health Psychology. Retrieved from….

-Russell, S. T., Sinclair, K., Poteat, P., & Koenig, B. (2012). Adolescent health and harassment based on discriminatory bias. American Journal of Public Health, 102(3), 493-495. Retrieved from

-Saylor, C.F. & Leach, J.B. (2009) Perceived bullying and social support students accessing special inclusion programming. Journal of Developmental and Physical Disabilities. 21, 69-80.

-Shelley, D., & Craig, W. M. (2010). Attributions and coping styles in reducing victimization. Canadian Journal of School Psychology, 25, 84-100.

-Thornberg, T., Tenenbaum, L., Varjas, K., Meyers, J., Jungert, T., & Vanegas, G. (2012). Bystander motivation in bullying incidents: To intervene or not to intervene? Western Journal of Emergency Medicine, 8(3), 247-252. Retrieved from

-U.S. Department of Education, (2015). New data show a decline in school-based bullying. Retrieved from

-Wright, T., & Smith, N. (2013). Bullying of LGBT youth and school climate for LGBT educators. GEMS (Gender, Education, Music, & Society, 6(1). Retrieved from

-Youth Risk Behavior Survey. (2015). Middle school YRBS. Centers for Disease Control. Retrieved from

-Youth Risk Behavior Survey. (2015). Trends in the prevalence of behaviors that contribute to violence. Centers for Disease Control. Retrieved from

+External Links for Youth Bullying

+Workplace Bullying Statistics

-37% of the people who are targeted by bullies are considered to be “compassionate and kind” co-workers.

-Only 6% of the targets of workplace bullying are aggressive.

-96% of American employees experience bullying in the workplace.

-The percentage of bullies who have been after a specific target for a minimum of 1 year: 89%.

-54% of bullies have been bullying for more than 5 years.

-80%. That’s the percentage of bullies who are able to have a negative effect on 5 or more co-workers.

-62% saw sabotaging of others’ work or reputations as the primary form of bullying in the workplace.

-Only 4% of co-workers saw assault or physical intimidation as the primary form of bullying, but psychological intimidation was noted 52% of the time.

-51% of employees say their company has a policy for dealing with bullies, but only 7% who are aware of a policy against bullying know of anyone who has ever used it.

-Women [53%] are more likely to be bullies in the workplace than men [47%].

-Bosses make up the majority of bullies.

-20% of recent survey responders reported that workplace bullying cost them upwards of seven hours a week of work.

-$8,800. This is the amount of annual lost wages that workplace bullying costs a target on average.

-Every target of a bully may lose up to 200 hours of productivity annually. If that targeted employee takes sick or vacation time, it may be a total of 400 hours of lost production to the employer.

-In 2011, half of employees in a workplace survey said they were treated rudely at least once a week at their job. This was an increase of 25% from a similar survey in 1998.

-Many workplace bullies also score high on tests of narcissism and self-orientation.

-Less than a third of American employees say they’re engaged at work.

-A survey conducted by Neuro Drinks found that only 9% of people say they’re happy at the office.

-In Australia, the financial cost of workplace bullying is estimated to be as high as $13 billion per year.

-There is an active bully in two-thirds of all workplaces. They are also more likely to be in some sort of authoritative position.

-100% of workers who indicated there was an active bully in their workplace also stated the actions of this person/persons was having a negative effect on staff morale.

-Only 50% of people who see workplace bullying will report it, but 90% of people say that workplace bullying has a negative effect on the entire company culture.

-23.5% of those who indicated they had been bullied stated that the bully did not act alone and that there were others involved.

-72%. That’s the percentage of people who will leave a job because they’ve been bullied or witnessed bullying in the workplace.

-Workplace bullying results in higher stress levels for 9 out of every 10 employees.

-16.6% of respondents to an Australian survey said that they had known of, or worked with a staff member who, after being targeted by a workplace bully, later committed suicide.

+Workplace Bullying & Harassment Research


The Bully-free Workplace: Stop Jerks, Weasels, and Snakes From Killing Your Organization (2011) By Gary Namie, PhD & Ruth Namie, PhD. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons. Available here .

The Bully At Work: What You Can Do to Stop the Hurt and Reclaim Your Dignity On the Job (2000, 2003, 2009) By Gary Namie, PhD & Ruth Namie, PhD. Naperville, IL: Sourcebooks. Second edition: Available here.

Use links below to access all study synopses & downloadable reports.

U.S. National Prevalence (Scientific surveys)
2007 US / 2010 US / 2014 US

U.S. Business Leaders’ Opinions (Scientific poll)

Why bullying happens

Discovering the phenomenon

Perpetrator & target gender
2000 / 2003 / 2007 US / 2010 US / 2012-SE / 2014 US

Race of bullied targets
2014 US / 2010 US

Age of bullied targets

Politics & bullying
2010 US / 2014 US / 2012-E

Perpetrator rank
2003 / 2007 US / 2009-A / 2012-H / 2014 US / 2012-F

Lone perpetrator or multiples
2007 US / 2012-H / 2014-B

Target selection factors
2000 / 2003 / 2007 US / 2012-I / 2014-A

Targets’ prior abuse
2011-F / 2013-H2014-C

Bullying tactics
2003 / 2007 US / 2011-I / 2012-F

Where bullying occurs
2007 US / 2013-Industry

Bullying rate compared to discrimination
2000 / 2007 US / 2014

Targets’ responses to bullying
2007 US / 2012-SE / 2013-D / 2013-I / 2012-D / 2014-C

Exposure time to bullying
2000 / 2007 US

Barriers to leaving

Health harm from bullying
2000 / 2003 / 2012-D / 2013-E / 2013-I / 2012-D2014-C

Mental Health Professionals
2013-E / 2014-C


Vacation/leave time for targets
2011-H / 2013-A

Economic impact for targets
2000 / 2009-B / 2011-A / 2012-SE / 2014 US

Support for bullied targets
2000 / 2011-L / 2012-D

Coworkers’ actions
2008 / 2014 US / / 2012-D

Reasons for coworkers’ actions

What stopped the bullying — “victory” “justice”
2000 / 2007 US / 2011-J / 2012-F / 2014

Target support for unions
2011-A / 2011-C

Support for perpetrators
2007 US / 2013-F

Consequences for perpetrators

Employers’ attitudes & actions
2008 / 2010 US / 2012-E / 2012-G / 2013-B / 2013-BL / 2014 US

Employer policies
2012-SE / 2012-B

HR & bullying
2012-SE / 2012-C

Effect of recession
2009-A / 2010 US

Internet/Social media use & bullying
2011-E / 2011-G

Support for a law
2010 US / 2014 US

Education Resources

+Research & Articles

-Teaching Children from Poverty to Trauma

-Handling Tough Situations with Emotional Intelligence

-Teacher Quality and Student Achievement: Making the Most of Recent Research

-Amygdala Damage Affects Event-Related Potentials for Fearful Faces at Specific Time Windows

-When Students Are Traumatized, Teachers Are Too

-Motivation: What Moves Us?

-How Focus Changed my Thinking About Emotional Intelligence

-50 Activities for Developing Emotional Intelligence

-Feelings Inventory

-A Fresh Look at Brain-Based Education

-Teenage Brains Are Elastic: That’s a Big Opportunity for Social-Emotional Learning

-Self-Regulation and the Executive Function: The Self as Controlling Agent

-Adverse Childhood Experiences and the Lifelong Consequences of Trauma

-7 Life Skills Students Need to Succeed

-Communicating Secondary Students' Social-Emotional Learning

-Is PTSD from Childhood Affecting You Today?

-The Power of Social-Emotional Learning in Secondary Schools

-Effects of Academic Anxiety on the Performance of Students With and Without Learning Disabilities and How Students Ban Cope with Anxiety at School

-Student Self-Esteem and the School System: Perceptions and Implications

-Common Core Instruction and Special Education

-#Unschoolleaders: If I Could Give You One Piece of Advice

-Differentiated Instruction and Implications for UDL Implementation

-Five Missing Pillars of Scientific Reading Instruction

-Review of an Evidence-Based School Social Work Intervention: WhyTry

-Reducing Out-of-School Suspensions: Practice Guidelines for School Social Workers

-Teachers are Students, Too

-The Prosocial Classroom: Teacher Social and Emotional Competence in Relation to Student and Classroom Outcomes

-Supporting Students in Tough Economic Times: Information for Educators

-These Tough Economic Times

-Character Education: Lessons for Teaching Social and Emotional Competence

-Using Metacognitive Strategies and Learning Styles to Create Self-Directed Learners

-Self-Control, Child Effects and Informal Social Control: A Direct Test of the Primacy and Sociogenic Factors

-Direct and Indirect Links Between Childhood Maltreatment, Posttraumatic Stress Disorder, and Women's Health

-The Quality of Children's Home Environment and Attachment Security in Indonesia

-Schooling and the Construction of Identity Among Minority Students in Spain and the United States