+Research & Articles
Anti Bullying Resources
+Youth Bullying Statistics
-The federal government began collecting data on school bullying in 2005, when the prevalence of bullying was around 28 percent (U.S. Department of Education, 2015).
-Rates of bullying vary across studies (from 9% to 98%). A meta-analysis of 80 studies analyzing bullying involvement rates (for both bullying others and being bullied) for 12-18 year old students reported a mean prevalence rate of 35% for traditional bullying involvement and 15% for cyberbullying involvement (Modecki, Minchin, Harbaugh, Guerra, & Runions, 2014).
-33% of students who reported being bullied at school indicated that they were bullied at least once or twice a month during the school year (National Center for Educational Statistics, 2016).
-Of those students who reported being bullied, 13% were made fun of, called names, or insulted; 12% were the subject of rumors; 5% were pushed, shoved, tripped, or spit on; and 5% were excluded from activities on purpose (National Center for Educational Statistics, 2016).
-A slightly higher portion of female than of male students report being bullied at school (23% vs. 19%). In contrast, a higher percentage of male than of female students report being physically bullied (6% vs. 4%) and threatened with harm (5% vs. 3%; (National Center for Educational Statistics, 2016).
-Bullied students reported that bullying occurred in the following places: the hallway or stairwell at school (42%), inside the classroom (34%), in the cafeteria (22%), outside on school grounds (19%), on the school bus (10%), and in the bathroom or locker room (9%) (National Center for Educational Statistics, 2016).
-43% of bullied students report notifying an adult at school about the incident. Students who report higher rates of bullying victimization are more likely to report the bullying (National Center for Educational Statistics, 2016).
-More than half of bullying situations (57%) stop when a peer intervenes on behalf of the student being bullied (Hawkins, Pepler, & Craig, 2001).
-School-based bullying prevention programs decrease bullying by up to 25% (McCallion & Feder, 2013).
-The reasons for being bullied reported most often by students include physical appearance, race/ethnicity, gender, disability, religion, sexual orientation, and nationality.
+Research & Reference-Youth
-Davis, S., & Nixon, C. (2010). The youth voice research project: Victimization and strategies. Retrieved from: http://njbullying.org/documents/YVPMarch2010.pdf
-Day, J. K., & Snapp, S. D. (2016). Supportive, not punitive, practices reduce homophobic bullying and improve school connectedness. Psychology of Sexual Orientations and Gender Diversity, 3, 416-425. Retrieved from http://psycnet.apa.org.ezp3.lib.umn.edu/fulltext/2016-41520-001.pdf
-Duong, J., & Bradshaw, C. (2014). Associations between bullying and engaging in aggressive and suicidal behavior among sexual minority youth: The moderating role of connectedness. Journal of School Health, 84, 636-645. Retrieved from https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25154527
-Espelage, D. L., & Holt, M. K. (2013). Suicidal ideation and school bullying experiences after controlling for depression and delinquency. Journal of Adolescent Health, 53. Retrieved from http://www.ncdsv.org/images/JAH_Suicidal-ideation-and-school-bullying_7-2013.pdf
-Gini, G., & Espelage, D. D. (2014) Peer victimization, cyberbullying, and suicide risk in children and adolescents. JAMA Pediatrics, 312, 545-546. Retrieved from
-Gini, G., & Pozzoli, T. (2013). Bullied children and psychosomatic problems: A meta-analysis. Pediatrics. Retrieved from pediatrics.aappublications.org/content/early/2013/09/11/peds.2013-0614
-GLSEN. (2013). The 2013 National School Climate Survey. Retrieved from
-Hamm, M. P., Newton, A. S., & Chisholm, A. (2015). Prevalence and effect of cyberbullying on children and young people: A scoping review of social media students. JAMA Pediatrics, 169, 770-777. Retrieved from https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26098362
-Hatzenbuehler, M. L., & Keyes, K. M. (2012). Inclusive anti-bullying policies and reduced risk of suicide attempts in lesbian and gay youth. Journal of Adolescent Health, 53, 21-26. Retrieved from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3696185/?tool=pmcentrez
-Hatzenbuehler, M. L., & Keyes, K. M. (2013). Inclusive anti-bullying policies and reduced risk of suicide attempts in lesbian and gay youth. Journal of Adolescent Health, 53, S21-S26. Retrieved from https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23790196
-Hawkins, D. L., Pepler, D. J., & Craig, W. M. (2001). Naturalistic observations of peer interventions in bullying. Social Development, 10(4), 512-527. Retrieved from http://bullylab.com/Portals/0/Naturalistic%20ob…
-Kann, L., Kinchen, S., & Shanklin, S. (2014). United States 2013 results. High School Youth Risk Behavior Survey, Center for Disease Control. Retrieved from http://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/pdf/ss/ss6304.pdf
-McCallion, G., & Feder, J. (2013). Student bullying: Overview of research, federal initiatives, and legal issues. Congressional Research Service. Retrieved from http://www.fas.org/sgp/crs/misc/R43254.pdf
-Modecki, K. L., Minchin, J., Harbaugh, A. G., Guerra, N. G., & Runions, K. C. (2014). Bullying prevelance across contexts: A meta-analysis measuring cyber and traditional bullying. Journal of Adolescent Health, 55, 602-611. Retrieved from http://www.jahonline.org/article/S1054-139X(14)00254-7/abstract
-Morin, H. K., Bradshaw, C. P., & Berg, J. K. (2015). Examining the link between per victimization and adjustment problems in adolescents: The role of connectedness and parent engagement. Psychology of Violence, 5, 422-432. Retrieved from http://psycnet.apa.org/buy/2015-45377-003
-National Center for Educational Statistics. (2015). Student reports of bullying and cyberbullying: Results from the 2013 school crime supplement to the National Victimization Survey. US Department of Education. Retrieved from http://nces.ed.gov/pubsearch/pubsinfo.asp?pubid=2015056
-National Center for Education Statistics. (2016). Indicators of School Crime and Safety: 2015. U.S. Department of Education. Retrieved from https://nces.ed.gov/fastfacts/display.asp?id=719
-National Center for Education Statistics. (2016). Indicators of School Crime and Safety: 2016. U.S. Department of Education. Retrieved from https://nces.ed.gov/pubs2017/2017064.pdf
-Patchin, J. W., & Hinduja, S. (2016). Summary of our cyberbullying research (2004-2016). Cyberbullying Research Center. Retrieved from http://cyberbullying.org/summary-of-our-cyberbullying-research
-Perren, S., Ettekal, I., & Ladd, G. (2013). The impact of peer victimization on later maladjustment: Mediating and moderating effects of hostile and self-blaming attributions. Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 54, 46-55. Retrieved from https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3527635/
-Reed, K. P., Nugent, W., & Cooper, R. L. (2015). Testing a path model of relationships between gender, age, and bullying victimization and violent behavior, substance abuse, depression, suicidal ideation, and suicide attempts in adolescents. Children and Youth Services Review, 55, 125-137. Retrieved from http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0190740915001656
-Rivers, I., Poteat, V. P., Noret, N., & Ashurst, N. (2009). Observing bullying at school: The mental health implications of witness status. School Psychology Quarterly, 24, 211–223. Retrieved from https://eric.ed.gov/?id=EJ866091
-Rose, C. A., Monda-Amaya, L. E., & Espelage, D. L. (2011). Bullying perpetration and victimization in special education: A review of the literature. Remedial and Special Education, 32, 114-130. Retrieved from http://rse.sagepub.com/content/early/2010/02/18/0741932510361247.abstract
-Rose, C. A., & Espelage, D. L. (2012). Risk and protective factors associated with the bullying involvement of students with emotional and behavioral disorders. Behavioral Disorders, 37, 133–148. Retrieved from https://eric.ed.gov/?id=EJ989490
-Rose, C. A., Espelage, D. L., Monda-Amaya, L. E., Shogren, K. A., & Aragon, S. R. (2013). Bullying and middle school students with and without specific learning disabilities. Journal of Learning Disabilities, 3, 239-254. Retrieved from http://journals.sagepub.com/doi/abs/10.1177/0022219413496279
-Rose, C. A., & Gage, N. A. (2017). Exploring the involvement of bullying among students with disabilities over time. Exceptional Children, 83, 298-314. Retrieved from http://journals.sagepub.com/doi/abs/10.1177/0014402916667587
-Rose, C. A., & Monda-Amaya, L. E. (2012). Bullying and victimization among students with disabilities: Effective strategies for classroom teachers. Intervention in School and Clinic, 48, 99-107. Retrieved from http://journals.sagepub.com.ezp3.lib.umn.edu/doi/abs/10.1177/1053451211430119
-Rosenthal, L., Earnshaw, V. A., Carroll-Scott, A., Henderson, K. E., Peters, S. M., McCaslin, C., & Ickovics, J. R. (2013). Weight- and race-based bullying: Health associations among urban adolescents. Journal of Health Psychology. Retrieved from http://www.yaleruddcenter.org/resources/upload/docs/what/communities/WeightRaceBullying_Phys….
-Russell, S. T., Sinclair, K., Poteat, P., & Koenig, B. (2012). Adolescent health and harassment based on discriminatory bias. American Journal of Public Health, 102(3), 493-495. Retrieved from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22390513
-Saylor, C.F. & Leach, J.B. (2009) Perceived bullying and social support students accessing special inclusion programming. Journal of Developmental and Physical Disabilities. 21, 69-80.
-Shelley, D., & Craig, W. M. (2010). Attributions and coping styles in reducing victimization. Canadian Journal of School Psychology, 25, 84-100. http://cjs.sagepub.com/content/25/1/84
-Thornberg, T., Tenenbaum, L., Varjas, K., Meyers, J., Jungert, T., & Vanegas, G. (2012). Bystander motivation in bullying incidents: To intervene or not to intervene? Western Journal of Emergency Medicine, 8(3), 247-252. Retrieved from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3415829/
-U.S. Department of Education, (2015). New data show a decline in school-based bullying. Retrieved from https://www.ed.gov/news/press-releases/new-data-show-decline-school-based-bullying
-Wright, T., & Smith, N. (2013). Bullying of LGBT youth and school climate for LGBT educators. GEMS (Gender, Education, Music, & Society, 6(1). Retrieved from http://library.queensu.ca/ojs/index.php/gems/article/view/5010
-Youth Risk Behavior Survey. (2015). Middle school YRBS. Centers for Disease Control. Retrieved from https://nccd.cdc.gov/youthonline/App/Default.aspx
-Youth Risk Behavior Survey. (2015). Trends in the prevalence of behaviors that contribute to violence. Centers for Disease Control. Retrieved from
+External Links for Youth Bullying
+Workplace Bullying Statistics
-Only 6% of the targets of workplace bullying are aggressive.
-96% of American employees experience bullying in the workplace.
-The percentage of bullies who have been after a specific target for a minimum of 1 year: 89%.
-54% of bullies have been bullying for more than 5 years.
-80%. That’s the percentage of bullies who are able to have a negative effect on 5 or more co-workers.
-62% saw sabotaging of others’ work or reputations as the primary form of bullying in the workplace.
-Only 4% of co-workers saw assault or physical intimidation as the primary form of bullying, but psychological intimidation was noted 52% of the time.
-51% of employees say their company has a policy for dealing with bullies, but only 7% who are aware of a policy against bullying know of anyone who has ever used it.
-Women [53%] are more likely to be bullies in the workplace than men [47%].
-Bosses make up the majority of bullies.
-20% of recent survey responders reported that workplace bullying cost them upwards of seven hours a week of work.
-$8,800. This is the amount of annual lost wages that workplace bullying costs a target on average.
-Every target of a bully may lose up to 200 hours of productivity annually. If that targeted employee takes sick or vacation time, it may be a total of 400 hours of lost production to the employer.
-In 2011, half of employees in a workplace survey said they were treated rudely at least once a week at their job. This was an increase of 25% from a similar survey in 1998.
-Many workplace bullies also score high on tests of narcissism and self-orientation.
-Less than a third of American employees say they’re engaged at work.
-A survey conducted by Neuro Drinks found that only 9% of people say they’re happy at the office.
-In Australia, the financial cost of workplace bullying is estimated to be as high as $13 billion per year.
-There is an active bully in two-thirds of all workplaces. They are also more likely to be in some sort of authoritative position.
-100% of workers who indicated there was an active bully in their workplace also stated the actions of this person/persons was having a negative effect on staff morale.
-Only 50% of people who see workplace bullying will report it, but 90% of people say that workplace bullying has a negative effect on the entire company culture.
-23.5% of those who indicated they had been bullied stated that the bully did not act alone and that there were others involved.
-72%. That’s the percentage of people who will leave a job because they’ve been bullied or witnessed bullying in the workplace.
-Workplace bullying results in higher stress levels for 9 out of every 10 employees.
-16.6% of respondents to an Australian survey said that they had known of, or worked with a staff member who, after being targeted by a workplace bully, later committed suicide.
+Workplace Bullying & Harassment Research
The Bully-free Workplace: Stop Jerks, Weasels, and Snakes From Killing Your Organization (2011) By Gary Namie, PhD & Ruth Namie, PhD. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons. Available here .
The Bully At Work: What You Can Do to Stop the Hurt and Reclaim Your Dignity On the Job (2000, 2003, 2009) By Gary Namie, PhD & Ruth Namie, PhD. Naperville, IL: Sourcebooks. Second edition: Available here.
Use links below to access all study synopses & downloadable reports.
U.S. Business Leaders’ Opinions (Scientific poll)
Why bullying happens
Discovering the phenomenon
Age of bullied targets
Barriers to leaving
Reasons for coworkers’ actions
Consequences for perpetrators
+Research & Articles
+Research & Articles